Amber is considered to be organic gemstones, formed by the time-hardened fossilized resin of pine trees, the now extinct pinus succinifera, and other species. As such it varies from about 20 to 60 million years old, according to different sources. It appears surprisingly light and warm to the touch, and readily produces static electricity when rubbed.
Amber is a complex mixture of several resins, succinic acid, and volatile oils. Its chemical content approximates to C10H16O, but also contains some hydrogen sulphide, H2S.

Color
The color of amber is generally similar to honey, varying from golden yellow, through rich orange and red to brown, but some can be white, dark brown almost to black, blue or green. Amber can be stained to enhance or change its color, particularly from yellow brown to red, and also to green.

Strength
Generally the hardness or strength of amber on Mohs scale varies from 2 to 2.5, but can vary from 1.5. It is an isotropic mineral with refractive index of 1.54 and has specific gravity of around 1.08.

Value
Amber is a relatively inexpensive gemstone. The most valuable amber has a rich, intense color of either a reddish hue or a rare green or blue. Their cost may vary from below $100 to $3000 depending on the quality and size of the stone.

Historical Importance
Availability
Use of Amber